Panels with ISSR members in IAHR 2005 Tokyo

Panels with ISSR members in IAHR 2005 Tokyo
31st January, 2005 version
Time: @11:00-13:00, A14:00-16:00, B16:30-18:30, C19:00-21:00

26th (Saturday) March
BMuslims and Human Rights in Europe, 16:30-18:30 06W
Muslim immigrants have settled in Western Europe in the last thirty years or
so, and now there are over 15 million estimated Muslim inhabitants. The level of Muslim integration differs from one country to another, but with the development of the European Union, Islam in Europe is posing a common issue for Europe as a whole. Settling down in Western Europe has been a challenge to Muslims, because Islam is a minority religion that needs to accommodate itself in a new culture and society. The European cultures and societies, on the other hand, also face the challenge as to how they can admit to these new neighbors the same rights as the preceding citizens have enjoyed. Here we see a number of
issues emerging regarding human rights for Muslims. In this panel scholars from Europe and Japan will address these issues from various angles.
Oscar Celador Angon (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain)
Enzo Pace (University of Padova, Italy)
James A. Beckford (University of Warwick, UK)
Naito Masanori (Hitotsubashi University, Japan. cs00115@srv.cc.hit-u.ac.jp)
Respondent: Ejaz Akram
Convener: Michiaki Okuyama (Nanzan University, Japan; mokuyama@nanzan-u.ac.jp)

28th (Monday) March
@Re-examining the cult controversies in Global context; An International Comparison of Religious Conflict (1) (p-No.0175) , 11:00-13:00 10I
Abstract: After the 9.11 attacks in 2001, the controversies on so-called cults /sects among mass-media, politicians and people in general, seem to have ended, and their major concerns shifted to the extremist terrorism and wars. But the similar kinds of movements still exist and people in suffering from them also still are struggling with the burden of their experience. In addition, the recent studies gradually have made apparent the complicated relations among the anti-cult campaigns by the governments, constant vigilance against terrorism and the rise of religious nationalism in this globalizing world.
In these today's situation, we would like to discuss again on the recent developments or changes of major movements called 'cult' and of social/political controversies around them in relations to other global contexts.

Speakers: Yoshihide Sakurai (University of Hokkaido, Japan)
Hiromi Shimada (Japan)
Danoye Oguntola-Laguda (Nigeria)
Manabu Watanabe (Nanzan University, Japan)
Chair : Tsuyoshi Nakano (Soka University, Japan; tnakano@soka.ac.jp)

AThe Rise of Religious Nationalism and Fundamentalism in the Globalizing World: International comparison of religious conflicts (2), 14:00-16:00 11I
Abstract: The world is even now in a period of great transition and of search for new order and identity. We see many movements that aim at the re-union of people in emphasizing the old myth of ethnic-origin or the fundamental religious ideas. This can be exactly called the rise of 'religious nationalism'. Although this kind of nationalism was first seen in developing countries, now we find it even in advanced societies of the West, first in an implicit form among anti-sect/cult political campaigns, and in quite explicit forms with strong political/military actions after 9.11 attacks of 2001
But at a much deeper level these developments could be said to be triggered by and related with the growing trend of globalization, which transcends the existing modern nation-state system in terms of culture, information, and exchange of human resources. We would like to share information and insights on the various forms of religious nationalism, and to re-examine their relations to the globalizing or glocalizing trend of the world now.
Speakers: Liliane Voye (UCL, Belgium)
Tong Chee Kiong (Univ. of Singapore)
     Kenta Awazu (Soka University, Japan)
Chair: Tsuyoshi Nakano (Soka University, Japan; tnakano@soka.ac.jp)

B Joint Session with SISR in honor of Dr.Abe, Dr. Anzai and Dr. Wilosn 12I
  "The Dialogue among Civilizations through the Sociology of Religion" 16:30-18:30
Abstract: This official joint panel with SISR/ISSR aims to discuss the development of further understanding of people among different religious cultures or civilizations as well as that of the sociology of religion itself through dialogues and academic exchanges among SISR/ISSR members from various countries. Researchers, who had been bounded by the time and space of their actual lives, have encountered each other through the activities of SISR/ISSR. This academic encounter might break the geographical and cultural boundary of civilization to which each scholar involved, and must have shared the problems or the difficulties in this contemporary World. In this panel, I would like to discuss how these encounters of the different civilization in the works of sociologists of religion affect the results of our studies.
Speakers: Karel Dobbelaere (KUL, Belgium)
James Beckford (University of Warwick, UK)
Nobutaka Inoue (Kokugakuin University)
Discussant: Enzo Pace (University of Padova, Italy)
Peter Beyer (University of Ottawa, Canada)
Chair: Tadaatsu Tajima (Tenshi University, Japan; VZI01671@nifty.ne.jp)

C Welcome party for Old and New SISR/ISSR members in memory of Dr. Anzai, Dr. Abe and Dr. Wilson by the Joint committee with SISR in cooperation with Kokugakuin University: 28th March, 19:00-21:00 at Room 'Matsu (pine)' in KIHINKAN Guest House 2nd floor, Takanawa Prince Hotel.

This party is held by the Japanese SISR/ISSR members with cooperation with Kokugakuin University for which Prof. Dr. Abe worked as the President by his last moments. This party has two aims. That is, one is to express our thanks to the families of late Prof. Dr. Abe and Prof. Dr. Anzai who also dedicated himself to introduce SISR/ISSR to Japan The other aims is to renew SISR/ISSR members' friendship. For that reason, we would invite many Japanese scholars those who have already joined or will attend in near future to the conference.

Welcoming address by Susumu Shimazono (University of Tokyo)
             Masahiko Asoya(Rector of Kokugakuin Univ.) 
Reply by Enzo Pace (President of ISSR)
Short speeches by major participants (Ikado, Tamaru, Morioka, Swyngedeou others)
Addresses by Mrs. Abe (togather with Atsuko Abe) and Anzai's family

Speakers' abstracts

26th (Saturday) March
BMuslims and Human Rights in Europe

Oscar Celador Angon (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid; ocelador@der-pu.uc3m.es)
EU, Human Rights, and Religious Minorities
In this discussion of Muslim and human rights in Europe, I am going to examine three areas: religious freedom and democracy, religious freedom and diversity, and religion and minorities. In my analysis of the status of Muslims in Europe, I will approach the regulations of the European Union as an independent entity different from those of the member States, and the local regulations of its member States. At the moment, the European Union does not have a Constitution, a Supreme or a Constitutional court. Then there is no particular political provision for religious freedom at the European Union level. In other words, there is no European Union policy regarding human rights. As a consequence of this frame, each individual State has its own policy in regard to human rights, and this policy used to depend on the historical roots of each country. We, therefore, have fifteen different conceptions of human rights and fifteen different conceptions of religious freedom and neutrality working at the same time.

Enzo Pace (University of Padova; vincenzo.pace@unipd.it)
Islam and Human Rights: The problem of legitimacy in a sociological perspective
The Cairo Declaration (1990) on Islam and Human Rights sums up the social and religious contradictions across the (plural) Muslim world: on one hand a believing system deals with the language of the modernity (the modern culture of the Rights, not necessarily derived from a religious foundation) and on the other it claims the superiority of the shari?ah. Because of this affirmation, Islam (i.e. the individuals and groups believing in the Muslim religion) is not able to integrate into its believing system the paradigm of Human Rights. Many discrepancies arise from the confrontation between shariatic norms and Human Rights rules: in the matter of religious minorities, as regards of the apostasy and the question of penal code as well as the rules concerning the so called "personal code" (majalla) on marriage, heritage, sexual differences and so on. In some aspects, also Catholicism up to the internal reform promoted by the Council Vatican II hasn't been willing to accept the idea of an ethic legitimacy of the Human Rights paradigm. The main difference between Islam and Catholicism concerns the role of the authority.
The paper shows that Islam ought to cope both historically and sociologically with the lack of legitimacy of the authority. The fitna al-kubra (the great conflict between sunni and shi?a) represents the dramatic process by which the Muslim world has been dealing, up to now, with the unresolved problem of the "last Prophecy": who's entitled to lead the community? And to solve the contradictions arose from the confrontation between shari?ah and Human Rights?

James A. Beckford (University of Warwick; J.A.Beckford@warwick.ac.uk)
Muslim Prisoners in Britain and France: The Balance between Difference and Equality
This paper analyzes many of the philosophical, sociological and policy-oriented debates that concern the growth of religious and ethnic diversity in Britain and France. Particular attention is given to the major differences between these two countries' respective responses to their Muslim minorities. The paper's main argument is that discourses of difference and equality have followed different trajectories for reasons that can be traced back to the religious and political history of each country. The articulation between ideas of difference and equality is thrown into especially sharp relief by distinctively British and French strategies for managing religious and ethnic diversity in prison populations. This will be illustrated by evidence drawn from my recently completed study of Muslim prisoners in Britain and from Farhad Khosrokhavar's L'Islam dans les Prisons (2004).
28th (Monday) March
@Re-examining the cult controversies in Global context; An International Comparison of Religious Conflict (1) (p-No.0175)

Sakurai, Yoshihide (University of Hokkaido; saku@let.hokudai.ac.jp)
Re-examining the cult controversies in Global context
Since the 911 attacks in 2001, the controversy on 'cults /sects' has been fading from the concerns of the mass-media, politicians and the general publics. We are anxious about the endless wars between extremist groups and super power countries. However, the 'cult/sect' problems have not yet been solved so that sufferers are still seeking public concern and support, but in vain.
Recently some sociologists of religion have pointed out the polarization between religious tolerances advocates and anti-cult campaigns by governments and cult watch groups, which sometimes lead to dramatic denouements of religious violence. Yet, anti-cult movements still argue the problematic natures of 'cults/sects' and its 'mind-control' proselytizing.
In this session, we would like to discuss again recent controversial new religious movements and the cult/sect controversy in the western context as well as Japanese. By such comparison, we could consider contextual construction of cult/sect problems and discover fundamentals to the develop study of new religions.

Danoye Oguntola-Laguda, Nigeria (danoyeoguntola@yahoo.com)
Religion and Terrorism: A Philosophical Appraisal of the Activities of Secret Societies in Yorubaland
The attention of the world has been refocussed on terrorism since the September 11 incidents in United States of America. The often presented thesis is that these actions are linked with religious groups especially in the Middle East. However a study of the activities of secret societies in Yorubaland in Nigeria, have shown that these groups terrorised innocent members of the community with serious socio- cultural as well as economic implications.This paper seeks to examine the interaction between religion and terrorism (in this case traditional religion as practised in Yorubaland)an its attendant effects on the society.It will further reveal that terrorism is a global phenom

Shimada, Hiromi (shimada-hiromi.email.20020225@s6.dion.ne.jp)
The Aum Shinrikyo incident as Religious Terrorism
The incident of Aum Shinrikyo which arose in 1995 gave a big shock. The believer of Aum Shinrikyo murdered 27 persons and injured 4000 or more people. The death penalty sentence was passed on 12 persons including Shoko Asahara who is a founder of Aum Shinrikyo. This incident attracted international concern. The researcher of Western countries supposes that the cause of an incident was in enthusiastic eschatology. However, Aum Shinrikyo was based on yoga and Buddhism. The believers of Aum Shinrikyo did not necessarily believe in God which brings about the end of a world. I want to consider this incident by going back to the tradition of the terrorism based on the Buddhism in Japan. Next, I want to analyze religious terrorism's feature in the present age when internationalization is progressing by comparing the incident of Aum Shinrikyo with the attack of 9.11.

Watanabe, Manabu (Nanzan University; mwatanab@nanzan-u.ac.jp)
Salvation and Violence
Many religions promise their believers salvation in one form or another, and some of them even aim at the salvation of unbelievers. Christian agap? and Buddhist compassion, for example, imply a process of salvation that reach beyond the confines of their own faithful. In many cases those who experience such works of agap? and compassion welcome them as a healing or a grace. In this case, a certain mutual understanding binds the two parties. In many other cases, however, what one person believes to be a salvific act is rejected by the person on the receiving end as an unwelcome intrusion. The Buddhist practice of moral training"(ch?buku) is a good example. Seen from the standpoint of the believer, it is a way of bringing mind and body under control, while from the standpoint of the non-believer it amounts to nothing less than the indoctrination and subjugation of those who do not happen to share the same beliefs. The grotesque extremes to which this practice can lead have more than amply been demonstrated in the case of Aum Shinriky?.

AThe Rise of Religious Nationalism and Fundamentalism in the Globalizing World: International comparison of religious conflicts (2)

Liliane Voye (Universite Catholic Leuven; dobbelaere.voye@skynet.be)
Nationalistic Aspects of Policies of Some European Governments Concerning Religious Matters
Historically, Europe's background has been unquestionably Christian, and the actual policies of various governments regularly express the cultural and ideological affinities that they share with this family of religions. Many examples might be cited to illustrate how, as a consequence, other religions either receive less favourable treatment or are suspected of being potentially dangerous not only for individuals, but also for the state itself. In some cases, even Christian religions other than the one which is favoured by the state are also considered with suspicion. This is particularly the case in former communist countries. It is not necessary to emphasize that, in countries which have, even implicitly, a strong and hereditary link with a particular religion or with a particular family of religions, New Religious Movements - in Europe, these are essentially movements that are branches of, or which are derived from, other religious traditions - are usually considered to be dangerous.
This paper will propose some illustrations of these kinds of situations before it will suggest some interpretations of them, among others the quest for a (re) affirmation of the country's identity, the support of the secular institutions which are inspired at the origin by the values promoted by a specific religion, the foundation among the population of a relatively shared ethic and of common spatial and temporal, cognitive and artistic references.

Tong Chee Kiong (National University of Singapole; soctck@nus.edu.sg)
Japanese New Religions in Singapore
I will examine the popularity of new religions, including soka gakkai and Sai Baba, in relation to religious change and rationalization in Singapore society and the role of the state in religion.

Kenta Awazu (Institute of Oriental Philosophy, Japan; kenta97@sannet.ne.jp)
Nationalism as a collective memory
Nationalism is a modern myth and could be understood as a certain form of a social construction of collective memory. War Memorials, National cemeteries and related commemorational ceremonies, at both of national and local levels, have an important roll for this construction. This paper introduce historical development of this kind of institutions in Japanese case and investigates them in terms of their symbols and forms and try to understand hybridised nature of nationalism spread among advanced countries.

B Joint Session with SISR in honor of Dr.Abe, Dr. Anzai and Dr. Wilosn 
 "The Dialogue among Civilizations through the Sociology of Religion"

Karel Dobbelaere (Catholic University of Leuven; dobbelaere.voye@skynet.be)
On Comparative Research
Invited to Japan by Shin Anzai-sensei in 1984, I was advised by Yoshiya Abe-sensei not to apply automatically to Japan sociological concepts developed in the West, such as secularization and pillarization, without first undertaking a comparative study of both societies. So I spent the last three months of 1984 in Japan trying to understand this country and its religions under the guidance of Jan Swyngedouw and Anzai. I tried to apply only one Western concept to the Japanese society, civil religion, in a paper which was discussed in a seminar at Tokyo University organized by Keiichi Yanagawa-sensei, another of my Japanese mentors.
In my paper for the Joint Session IAHR - SISR in honour of Abe-sensei, I want to reflect on the impact my study of Japanese society and religion had on the development of my thinking. However, since I had the occasion to continue my discussions with Japanese colleagues and friends in Japan and Belgium later on, this reflection will also be influenced by these later contacts. Those with Abe-sensei during the last ten years were extremely stimulating.
I will discuss the following points which illuminate the effects of my contacts with Japan on my thinking. First of all, I want to stress the importance of rites - which are rather under-valued in religions of the book like Christianity. In my study of Japanese NRMs, I have pointed out the emergence of an institutionalized pillar. And finally, I want to stress the cross fertilization of theoretical approaches by suggesting a way of integrating aspects of Rational Choice Theory in order to extend our study of the process of secularization.

James A. Beckford (University of Warwick, UK)
Dialogue between sociologists of religion in Japan and Europe
This paper will analyse some aspects of the many interchanges that have taken place since the 1970s between Japanese and European sociologists of religion. Without trying to be an exhaustive account of all exchanges, my argument will identify some specific features of the dialogues that have "and have not" occurred. Emphasis will be placed on the central role of ABE Yoshiya in guiding, facilitating and animating the interchanges.

Inoue, Nobutaka(Kokugakuin University; n-inoue@kt.rim.or.jp)
The Relationship of "New Religion" to "NRM" (New Religious Movement)
The concept of "new religion" (shin shuky?) came to be broadly adopted within the Japanese sociology of religion from the 1960s. Although some difference in usage can be observed among scholars, shin shukyo is generally understood to refer to movements and groups established since the middle of the nineteenth century, when Japan began the process of modernization. The term is often used as one of contrast with "established religion" or "traditional religion," expressions used to refer to "Shrine Shinto," "sectarian Buddhism," and the religion of Shugend?. Characteristics of the "new religions" (shin sh?ky?) include the fact that lay persons may become religious leaders, and that new systems of organization are invented for expanding group membership. The religions themselves, however, possess many points in common with traditional religions in terms of teachings and rituals.
NRMs (New Religious Movements), on the other hand, is an expression used among many European scholars to refer to new movements in the modern period, as well as so-called "New Age" movements, and in that sense, it appears to have a slightly greater conceptual breadth than the Japanese term shin sh?ky?.. The expression seems to particularly stress the aspect of religions that are alien to Christianity. In this presentation, I wish to exchange opinions regarding common and different features of these two terms, in order to establish a better understanding of modern global religious phenomena.

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